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ENZYME entry: EC 1.14.11.19

Accepted Name
Anthocyanidin synthase.
Alternative Name(s)
Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase.
Leucocyanidin oxygenase.
Reaction catalysed
A (2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin + 2-oxoglutarate + O(2) <=> an anthocyanidin + succinate + CO(2) + 2 H(2)O
Cofactor(s)
Fe(2+); L-ascorbate.
Comment(s)
  • It is involved in the pathway by which many flowering plants make anthocyanin flower pigments (glycosylated anthocyandins).
  • The enzyme hydroxylates the C-3 carbon, followed by a trans diaxial elimination, forming a C-2,C-3 enol.
  • The product loses a second water molecule to form anthocyanidins.
  • When assayed in vitro, non-enzymic epimerization of the product can lead to formation of dihydroflavanols.
  • Thus when the substrate is leucocyanidin, a mixture of (+)-taxifolin and (+)-epitaxifolin are formed.
  • The enzyme can also oxidize the formed (+)-taxifolin to quercetin (cf. EC 1.14.11.23).
Cross-references
PROSITEPDOC51471
BRENDA1.14.11.19
EC2PDB1.14.11.19
ExplorEnz1.14.11.19
PRIAM enzyme-specific profiles1.14.11.19
KEGG Ligand Database for Enzyme Nomenclature1.14.11.19
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature1.14.11.19
IntEnz1.14.11.19
MEDLINEFind literature relating to 1.14.11.19
MetaCyc1.14.11.19
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
A2WQ39, ANS1_ORYSI;  Q93VC3, ANS1_ORYSJ;  Q67VR7, ANS2_ORYSJ;  
Q96323, LDOX_ARATH;  P41213, LDOX_MAIZE;  P51091, LDOX_MALDO;  
O04274, LDOX_PERFR;  P51092, LDOX_PETHY;  P51093, LDOX_VITVI;  

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