ENZYME entry: EC 1.13.11.63

Accepted Name
Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase.
Alternative Name(s)
Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase.
Carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase.
Carotene dioxygenase.
Reaction catalysed
Beta-carotene + O(2) <=> 2 all-trans-retinal
Cofactor(s)
Fe cation.
Comment(s)
  • The enzyme cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically, producing two molecules of all-trans-retinal.
  • Both atoms of the oxygen molecule are incorporated into the products.
  • The enzyme can also process beta-cryptoxanthin, 8'-apo-beta- carotenal, 4'-apo-beta-carotenal, alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene in decreasing order.
  • The presence of at least one unsubstituted beta-ionone ring in a substrate greater than C(30) is mandatory.
  • A prokaryotic enzyme has been reported from the uncultured marine bacterium 66A03, where it is involved in the proteorhodopsin system, which uses retinal as its chromophore.
  • Formerly EC 1.13.11.n2.
Cross-references
BRENDA1.13.11.63
EC2PDB1.13.11.63
ExplorEnz1.13.11.63
PRIAM enzyme-specific profiles1.13.11.63
KEGG Ligand Database for Enzyme Nomenclature1.13.11.63
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature1.13.11.63
IntEnz1.13.11.63
MEDLINEFind literature relating to 1.13.11.63
MetaCyc1.13.11.63
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Q9I993, BCDO1_CHICK;  Q9HAY6, BCDO1_HUMAN;  Q9JJS6, BCDO1_MOUSE;  
Q91XT5, BCDO1_RAT;  Q9HNE6, BLH_HALSA;  Q4PNI0, BLH_UNCMB;  
B0R5N7, BRP_HALS3;  Q9HPU7, BRP_HALSA;  

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