ENZYME entry: EC 1.17.1.4

Accepted Name
Xanthine dehydrogenase.
Alternative Name(s)
NAD-xanthine dehydrogenase.
Xanthine oxidoreductase.
Xanthine-NAD oxidoreductase.
Xanthine/NAD(+) oxidoreductase.
Reaction catalysed
  • Xanthine + NAD(+) + H(2)O <=> urate + NADH
  • Hypoxanthine + NAD(+) + H(2)O <=> xanthine + NADH
Cofactor(s)
FAD; Iron-sulfur; Mo cation.
Comment(s)
  • Acts on a variety of purines and aldehydes, including hypoxanthine.
  • The mammalian enzyme can also convert all-trans retinol to all-trans- retinoate, while the substrate is bound to a retinoid-binding protein.
  • The enzyme from eukaryotes contains [2Fe-2S], FAD and a molybdenum center.
  • The mammallian enzyme predominantly exists as the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC 1.17.1.4).
  • During purification the enzyme is largely converted to an O(2)- dependent form, EC 1.17.3.2.
  • The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds (which can be catalyzed by EC 1.8.4.7 in the presence of glutathione disulfide) or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion.
  • The conversion can also occur in vivo.
  • Formerly EC 1.2.1.37 and EC 1.1.1.204.
Cross-references
PROSITEPDOC00484
BRENDA1.17.1.4
EC2PDB1.17.1.4
ExplorEnz1.17.1.4
PRIAM enzyme-specific profiles1.17.1.4
KEGG Ligand Database for Enzyme Nomenclature1.17.1.4
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature1.17.1.4
IntEnz1.17.1.4
MEDLINEFind literature relating to 1.17.1.4
MetaCyc1.17.1.4
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Q8GUQ8, XDH1_ARATH;  F4JLI5, XDH2_ARATH;  O32147, XDHA_BACSU;  
Q8X6C7, XDHA_ECO57;  Q46799, XDHA_ECOLI;  Q8X6C5, XDHB_ECO57;  
Q46800, XDHB_ECOLI;  O32145, XDHC_BACSU;  O32144, XDHD_BACSU;  
O32143, XDHE_BACSU;  P80457, XDH_BOVIN;  P08793, XDH_CALVI;  
P47990, XDH_CHICK;  Q54FB7, XDH_DICDI;  P10351, XDH_DROME;  
P22811, XDH_DROPS;  P91711, XDH_DROSU;  Q12553, XDH_EMENI;  
Q9MYW6, XDH_FELCA;  P47989, XDH_HUMAN;  Q00519, XDH_MOUSE;  
Q6AUV1, XDH_ORYSJ;  P22985, XDH_RAT;  Q8X6J4, YAGR_ECO57;  
P77489, YAGR_ECOLI;  Q8X6J0, YAGS_ECO57;  P77324, YAGS_ECOLI;  

View entry in original ENZYME format
View entry in raw text format (no links)

All UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries referenced in this entry, with possibility to download in different formats, align etc.
All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 1.17.1.-
All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 1.17.-.-
All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 1.-.-.-