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ENZYME entry: EC

Accepted Name
xanthine dehydrogenase.
Alternative Name(s)
NAD-xanthine dehydrogenase.
xanthine/NAD(+) oxidoreductase.
xanthine-NAD oxidoreductase.
xanthine oxidoreductase.
Reaction catalysed
H2O + NAD(+) + xanthine <=> H(+) + NADH + urate
  • Acts on a variety of purines and aldehydes, including hypoxanthine.
  • The mammalian enzyme can also convert all-trans retinol to all-trans- retinoate, while the substrate is bound to a retinoid-binding protein.
  • The enzyme from eukaryotes contains [2Fe-2S], FAD and a molybdenum center.
  • The mammallian enzyme predominantly exists as the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC
  • During purification the enzyme is largely converted to an O2-dependent form, EC
  • The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds (which can be catalyzed by EC in the presence of glutathione disulfide) or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion.
  • The conversion can also occur in vivo.
  • Formerly EC and EC
PRIAM enzyme-specific profiles1.17.1.4
KEGG Ligand Database for Enzyme Nomenclature1.17.1.4
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature1.17.1.4
MEDLINEFind literature relating to
Rhea expert-curated reactions1.17.1.4
Q8X6C7, XDHA_ECO57;  Q46799, XDHA_ECOLI;  Q8X6C5, XDHB_ECO57;  
Q46800, XDHB_ECOLI;  O32145, XDHC_BACSU;  O32144, XDHD_BACSU;  
P08793, XDH_CALVI;  P47990, XDH_CHICK;  Q54FB7, XDH_DICDI;  
P10351, XDH_DROME;  P22811, XDH_DROPS;  P91711, XDH_DROSU;  
Q12553, XDH_EMENI;  Q9MYW6, XDH_FELCA;  P47989, XDH_HUMAN;  
Q00519, XDH_MOUSE;  Q6AUV1, XDH_ORYSJ;  P22985, XDH_RAT;  

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