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A new class EC 7, Translocases, has been added to the EC list. It will be part of ENZYME from release 2018_10. Read more about EC 7 here.

ENZYME entry: EC

Accepted Name
Xanthine dehydrogenase.
Alternative Name(s)
NAD-xanthine dehydrogenase.
Xanthine oxidoreductase.
Xanthine-NAD oxidoreductase.
Xanthine/NAD(+) oxidoreductase.
Reaction catalysed
Xanthine + NAD(+) + H(2)O <=> urate + NADH
FAD; Iron-sulfur; Mo cation.
  • Acts on a variety of purines and aldehydes, including hypoxanthine.
  • The mammalian enzyme can also convert all-trans retinol to all-trans- retinoate, while the substrate is bound to a retinoid-binding protein.
  • The enzyme from eukaryotes contains [2Fe-2S], FAD and a molybdenum center.
  • The mammallian enzyme predominantly exists as the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC
  • During purification the enzyme is largely converted to an O(2)- dependent form, EC
  • The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds (which can be catalyzed by EC in the presence of glutathione disulfide) or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion.
  • The conversion can also occur in vivo.
  • Formerly EC and EC
PRIAM enzyme-specific profiles1.17.1.4
KEGG Ligand Database for Enzyme Nomenclature1.17.1.4
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature1.17.1.4
MEDLINEFind literature relating to
Q8X6C7, XDHA_ECO57;  Q46799, XDHA_ECOLI;  Q8X6C5, XDHB_ECO57;  
Q46800, XDHB_ECOLI;  O32145, XDHC_BACSU;  O32144, XDHD_BACSU;  
P08793, XDH_CALVI;  P47990, XDH_CHICK;  Q54FB7, XDH_DICDI;  
P10351, XDH_DROME;  P22811, XDH_DROPS;  P91711, XDH_DROSU;  
Q12553, XDH_EMENI;  Q9MYW6, XDH_FELCA;  P47989, XDH_HUMAN;  
Q00519, XDH_MOUSE;  Q6AUV1, XDH_ORYSJ;  P22985, XDH_RAT;  

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