ENZYME entry: EC 1.1.99.1

Accepted Name
Choline dehydrogenase.
Alternative Name(s)
Choline oxidase.
Choline-cytochrome c reductase.
Reaction catalysed
Choline + acceptor <=> betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor
Cofactor(s)
Pyrroloquinoline quinone.
Comment(s)
  • In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyze the conversion of (1) choline into betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde into betaine.
  • In plants, the first reaction is catalyzed by EC 1.14.15.7 whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalyzed by either EC 1.1.99.1 or EC 1.1.3.17.
  • The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 1.2.1.8, appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria.
Cross-references
PROSITEPDOC00543
BRENDA1.1.99.1
EC2PDB1.1.99.1
ExplorEnz1.1.99.1
PRIAM enzyme-specific profiles1.1.99.1
KEGG Ligand Database for Enzyme Nomenclature1.1.99.1
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature1.1.99.1
IntEnz1.1.99.1
MEDLINEFind literature relating to 1.1.99.1
MetaCyc1.1.99.1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Q1QXE1, BETA1_CHRSD;  Q9L4K0, BETA2_CHRSD;  Q6FDF9, BETA_ACIAD;  
B7GYG5, BETA_ACIB3;  B7I895, BETA_ACIB5;  B2HV79, BETA_ACIBC;  
B0VST3, BETA_ACIBS;  B0V945, BETA_ACIBY;  B9JBA2, BETA_AGRRK;  
Q8UH55, BETA_AGRT5;  A9M9H8, BETA_BRUC2;  Q8YFY2, BETA_BRUME;  
A5VPA6, BETA_BRUO2;  B0CKN4, BETA_BRUSI;  Q8G1Z8, BETA_BRUSU;  
B1Z034, BETA_BURA4;  Q1BQE2, BETA_BURCA;  B1K707, BETA_BURCC;  
A0B2F7, BETA_BURCH;  B4EHJ2, BETA_BURCJ;  Q0B711, BETA_BURCM;  
Q39A44, BETA_BURL3;  A9AMZ9, BETA_BURM1;  Q62CH8, BETA_BURMA;  
Q3JLL7, BETA_BURP1;  B2JS89, BETA_BURP8;  B2TCJ8, BETA_BURPP;  
Q63KK7, BETA_BURPS;  Q2T6D0, BETA_BURTA;  A4JJG6, BETA_BURVG;  
Q13NG7, BETA_BURXL;  A8AJN0, BETA_CITK8;  A7MFA8, BETA_CROS8;  
A7ZI50, BETA_ECO24;  B7UJG4, BETA_ECO27;  B7MCD0, BETA_ECO45;  
B7L439, BETA_ECO55;  Q8X6C6, BETA_ECO57;  B5Z1R0, BETA_ECO5E;  
B7M2V5, BETA_ECO8A;  B1XE52, BETA_ECODH;  A7ZWV4, BETA_ECOHS;  
Q0TKW1, BETA_ECOL5;  Q8FKI9, BETA_ECOL6;  B1J0W6, BETA_ECOLC;  
P17444, BETA_ECOLI;  B7N8L3, BETA_ECOLU;  B6I074, BETA_ECOSE;  
B1LIJ7, BETA_ECOSM;  Q1RFM3, BETA_ECOUT;  B5Y008, BETA_KLEP3;  
A6T613, BETA_KLEP7;  A6X2G7, BETA_OCHA4;  Q6D6D9, BETA_PECAS;  
C6DKY4, BETA_PECCP;  Q6LGH5, BETA_PHOPR;  B4EX94, BETA_PROMH;  
Q48CM7, BETA_PSE14;  A6VEI3, BETA_PSEA7;  B7V5R3, BETA_PSEA8;  
Q02DZ0, BETA_PSEAB;  Q9HTJ2, BETA_PSEAE;  Q1IG70, BETA_PSEE4;  
Q4K4K7, BETA_PSEF5;  C3K3D3, BETA_PSEFS;  A4XPI5, BETA_PSEMY;  
A5WA97, BETA_PSEP1;  Q3K5H3, BETA_PSEPF;  B0KN19, BETA_PSEPG;  
Q88CW6, BETA_PSEPK;  Q88AE7, BETA_PSESM;  Q4ZM63, BETA_PSEU2;  
B3PTE0, BETA_RHIE6;  Q2KB43, BETA_RHIEC;  Q1MJU4, BETA_RHIL3;  
Q985M5, BETA_RHILO;  B5ZUG2, BETA_RHILW;  P54223, BETA_RHIME;  
C3MIE4, BETA_RHISN;  A8GBX9, BETA_SERP5;  Q0T7N0, BETA_SHIF8;  
A6U6Y8, BETA_SINMW;  A7X6Z3, BETA_STAA1;  A6U4Z2, BETA_STAA2;  
Q2FDP9, BETA_STAA3;  Q2FV11, BETA_STAA8;  A5IW37, BETA_STAA9;  
Q2YWJ5, BETA_STAAB;  Q5HCU1, BETA_STAAC;  A6QK99, BETA_STAAE;  
P60336, BETA_STAAM;  P60337, BETA_STAAN;  Q6GDJ1, BETA_STAAR;  
Q6G664, BETA_STAAS;  A8Z5A4, BETA_STAAT;  Q8NUM0, BETA_STAAW;  
Q5HL11, BETA_STAEQ;  Q8CMY2, BETA_STAES;  Q4L9D7, BETA_STAHJ;  
Q4A0Q1, BETA_STAS1;  Q9X2M2, BETA_STAXY;  B4SHV9, BETA_STRM5;  
B2FQ89, BETA_STRMK;  A7N2P9, BETA_VIBCB;  Q8D3K2, BETA_VIBVU;  
Q7MF12, BETA_VIBVY;  Q8PPG8, BETA_XANAC;  Q3BXK8, BETA_XANC5;  
Q4UYN5, BETA_XANC8;  B0RNU9, BETA_XANCB;  Q8P5D7, BETA_XANCP;  
A7FKL6, BETA_YERP3;  Q1C932, BETA_YERPA;  B2K8U4, BETA_YERPB;  
Q8ZGW0, BETA_YERPE;  Q1CFR7, BETA_YERPN;  A4TNP2, BETA_YERPP;  
Q66D54, BETA_YERPS;  B1JSR0, BETA_YERPY;  Q8NE62, CHDH_HUMAN;  
Q8BJ64, CHDH_MOUSE;  Q6UPE0, CHDH_RAT;  

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