ENZYME entry: EC 1.14.15.7

Accepted Name
Choline monooxygenase.
Reaction catalysed
Choline + O(2) + 2 reduced ferredoxin + 2 H(+) <=> betaine aldehyde hydrate + H(2)O + 2 oxidized ferredoxin
Cofactor(s)
Iron-sulfur; Mg(2+).
Comment(s)
  • Catalyzes the first step of glycine betaine synthesis.
  • In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine.
  • Different enzymes are involved in the first reaction.
  • In plants, the reaction is catalyzed by this enzyme whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalyzed by either membrane-bound EC 1.1.99.1 or soluble EC 1.1.3.17.
  • The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 1.2.1.8, appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria.
  • In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC 2.1.1.156 and EC 2.1.1.157.
  • Formerly EC 1.14.14.4.
Cross-references
BRENDA1.14.15.7
EC2PDB1.14.15.7
ExplorEnz1.14.15.7
PRIAM enzyme-specific profiles1.14.15.7
KEGG Ligand Database for Enzyme Nomenclature1.14.15.7
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature1.14.15.7
IntEnz1.14.15.7
MEDLINEFind literature relating to 1.14.15.7
MetaCyc1.14.15.7
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Q93XE1, CHMO_AMATR;  Q9SZR0, CHMO_ARATH;  Q9LKN0, CHMO_ATRHO;  
O22553, CHMO_BETVU;  O04121, CHMO_SPIOL;  

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