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ENZYME entry: EC 1.2.1.8

Accepted Name
Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Alternative Name(s)
BADH.
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Betaine aldehyde oxidase.
Reaction catalysed
Betaine aldehyde + NAD(+) + H(2)O <=> betaine + NADH
Comment(s)
  • In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine.
  • This enzyme is involved in the second step and appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria.
  • In contrast, different enzymes are involved in the first reaction.
  • In plants, this reaction is catalyzed by EC 1.14.15.7, whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalyzed by either membrane-bound EC 1.1.99.1 or soluble EC 1.1.3.17.
  • In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC 2.1.1.156 and EC 2.1.1.157.
Cross-references
PROSITEPDOC00068
BRENDA1.2.1.8
EC2PDB1.2.1.8
ExplorEnz1.2.1.8
PRIAM enzyme-specific profiles1.2.1.8
KEGG Ligand Database for Enzyme Nomenclature1.2.1.8
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature1.2.1.8
IntEnz1.2.1.8
MEDLINEFind literature relating to 1.2.1.8
MetaCyc1.2.1.8
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Q2KJC9, AL7A1_BOVIN;  P49419, AL7A1_HUMAN;  Q9DBF1, AL7A1_MOUSE;  
Q64057, AL7A1_RAT;  Q9S795, BADH1_ARATH;  O24174, BADH1_ORYSJ;  
Q9STS1, BADH2_ARATH;  B3VMC0, BADH2_ORYSI;  Q84LK3, BADH2_ORYSJ;  
O04895, BADH_AMAHP;  P42757, BADH_ATRHO;  P28237, BADH_BETVU;  
P56533, BADH_GADMC;  Q40024, BADH_HORVU;  O59808, BADH_SCHPO;  
P17202, BADH_SPIOL;  Q1QXE1, BETA1_CHRSD;  Q6FDF9, BETA_ACIAD;  
B7GYG5, BETA_ACIB3;  B7I895, BETA_ACIB5;  B2HV79, BETA_ACIBC;  
B0VST3, BETA_ACIBS;  B0V945, BETA_ACIBY;  Q8UH55, BETA_AGRFC;  
B9JBA2, BETA_AGRRK;  A9M9H8, BETA_BRUC2;  Q8YFY2, BETA_BRUME;  
A5VPA6, BETA_BRUO2;  B0CKN4, BETA_BRUSI;  Q8G1Z8, BETA_BRUSU;  
B1Z034, BETA_BURA4;  Q1BQE2, BETA_BURCA;  B1K707, BETA_BURCC;  
A0B2F7, BETA_BURCH;  B4EHJ2, BETA_BURCJ;  Q0B711, BETA_BURCM;  
Q39A44, BETA_BURL3;  A9AMZ9, BETA_BURM1;  Q62CH8, BETA_BURMA;  
Q3JLL7, BETA_BURP1;  Q63KK7, BETA_BURPS;  Q2T6D0, BETA_BURTA;  
A4JJG6, BETA_BURVG;  A8AJN0, BETA_CITK8;  A7MFA8, BETA_CROS8;  
A7ZI50, BETA_ECO24;  B7UJG4, BETA_ECO27;  B7MCD0, BETA_ECO45;  
B7L439, BETA_ECO55;  Q8X6C6, BETA_ECO57;  B5Z1R0, BETA_ECO5E;  
B7M2V5, BETA_ECO8A;  B1XE52, BETA_ECODH;  A7ZWV4, BETA_ECOHS;  
Q0TKW1, BETA_ECOL5;  Q8FKI9, BETA_ECOL6;  B1J0W6, BETA_ECOLC;  
P17444, BETA_ECOLI;  B7N8L3, BETA_ECOLU;  B6I074, BETA_ECOSE;  
B1LIJ7, BETA_ECOSM;  Q1RFM3, BETA_ECOUT;  B5Y008, BETA_KLEP3;  
A6T613, BETA_KLEP7;  A6X2G7, BETA_OCHA4;  B2JS89, BETA_PARP8;  
B2TCJ8, BETA_PARPJ;  Q13NG7, BETA_PARXL;  Q6D6D9, BETA_PECAS;  
C6DKY4, BETA_PECCP;  Q6LGH5, BETA_PHOPR;  B4EX94, BETA_PROMH;  
Q48CM7, BETA_PSE14;  A6VEI3, BETA_PSEA7;  B7V5R3, BETA_PSEA8;  
Q02DZ0, BETA_PSEAB;  Q9HTJ2, BETA_PSEAE;  Q1IG70, BETA_PSEE4;  
Q4K4K7, BETA_PSEF5;  C3K3D3, BETA_PSEFS;  A4XPI5, BETA_PSEMY;  
A5WA97, BETA_PSEP1;  Q3K5H3, BETA_PSEPF;  B0KN19, BETA_PSEPG;  
Q88CW6, BETA_PSEPK;  Q88AE7, BETA_PSESM;  Q4ZM63, BETA_PSEU2;  
B3PTE0, BETA_RHIE6;  Q2KB43, BETA_RHIEC;  Q1MJU4, BETA_RHIL3;  
Q985M5, BETA_RHILO;  B5ZUG2, BETA_RHILW;  P54223, BETA_RHIME;  
A8GBX9, BETA_SERP5;  Q0T7N0, BETA_SHIF8;  C3MIE4, BETA_SINFN;  
A6U6Y8, BETA_SINMW;  A7X6Z3, BETA_STAA1;  A6U4Z2, BETA_STAA2;  
Q2FDP9, BETA_STAA3;  Q2FV11, BETA_STAA8;  A5IW37, BETA_STAA9;  
Q2YWJ5, BETA_STAAB;  Q5HCU1, BETA_STAAC;  A6QK99, BETA_STAAE;  
P60336, BETA_STAAM;  P60337, BETA_STAAN;  Q6GDJ1, BETA_STAAR;  
Q6G664, BETA_STAAS;  A8Z5A4, BETA_STAAT;  Q8NUM0, BETA_STAAW;  
Q5HL11, BETA_STAEQ;  Q8CMY2, BETA_STAES;  Q4L9D7, BETA_STAHJ;  
Q4A0Q1, BETA_STAS1;  Q9X2M2, BETA_STAXY;  B4SHV9, BETA_STRM5;  
B2FQ89, BETA_STRMK;  A7N2P9, BETA_VIBCB;  Q8D3K2, BETA_VIBVU;  
Q7MF12, BETA_VIBVY;  Q8PPG8, BETA_XANAC;  Q3BXK8, BETA_XANC5;  
Q4UYN5, BETA_XANC8;  B0RNU9, BETA_XANCB;  Q8P5D7, BETA_XANCP;  
A7FKL6, BETA_YERP3;  Q1C932, BETA_YERPA;  B2K8U4, BETA_YERPB;  
Q8ZGW0, BETA_YERPE;  Q1CFR7, BETA_YERPN;  A4TNP2, BETA_YERPP;  
Q66D54, BETA_YERPS;  B1JSR0, BETA_YERPY;  P54222, BETB1_RHIME;  
Q92YD2, BETB2_RHIME;  Q6FDF8, BETB_ACIAD;  B7GYG4, BETB_ACIB3;  
B7I896, BETB_ACIB5;  B2HV80, BETB_ACIBC;  B0VST2, BETB_ACIBS;  
A3M365, BETB_ACIBT;  B0V944, BETB_ACIBY;  Q8UH56, BETB_AGRFC;  
B9JBA3, BETB_AGRRK;  P71016, BETB_BACSU;  B2SA42, BETB_BRUA1;  
Q2YMP8, BETB_BRUA2;  Q57EI0, BETB_BRUAB;  A9M9H7, BETB_BRUC2;  
C0RHQ3, BETB_BRUMB;  Q8YFY0, BETB_BRUME;  A5VPA5, BETB_BRUO2;  
B0CKN3, BETB_BRUSI;  Q8G1Z9, BETB_BRUSU;  B1Z033, BETB_BURA4;  
Q1BQE1, BETB_BURCA;  B1K708, BETB_BURCC;  A0B2F6, BETB_BURCH;  
B4EHJ1, BETB_BURCJ;  Q0B712, BETB_BURCM;  Q39A43, BETB_BURL3;  
A9AN00, BETB_BURM1;  A3MEC6, BETB_BURM7;  A2RWD6, BETB_BURM9;  
Q62CH7, BETB_BURMA;  A1UVS4, BETB_BURMS;  A3P6B0, BETB_BURP0;  
Q3JLL8, BETB_BURP1;  A3NKP8, BETB_BURP6;  Q63KK8, BETB_BURPS;  
A4JJG5, BETB_BURVG;  Q9L4K1, BETB_CHRSD;  A7ZI51, BETB_ECO24;  
B7UJG5, BETB_ECO27;  B7MCD1, BETB_ECO45;  B7L441, BETB_ECO55;  
Q7AH91, BETB_ECO57;  B5Z1R1, BETB_ECO5E;  B7NK50, BETB_ECO7I;  
B7M2V6, BETB_ECO8A;  B1XET7, BETB_ECODH;  A7ZWV5, BETB_ECOHS;  
Q0TKW0, BETB_ECOL5;  Q8FKI8, BETB_ECOL6;  B1J0W5, BETB_ECOLC;  
P17445, BETB_ECOLI;  B7N8L4, BETB_ECOLU;  B6I075, BETB_ECOSE;  
B1LIJ8, BETB_ECOSM;  B5Y007, BETB_KLEP3;  A6W2P7, BETB_MARMS;  
A6X2G8, BETB_OCHA4;  B2JS88, BETB_PARP8;  B2TCJ9, BETB_PARPJ;  
Q13NG6, BETB_PARXL;  Q6D6E0, BETB_PECAS;  C6DKY5, BETB_PECCP;  
Q48CM6, BETB_PSE14;  A6VEI4, BETB_PSEA7;  B7V5R4, BETB_PSEA8;  
Q02DY9, BETB_PSEAB;  Q9HTJ1, BETB_PSEAE;  Q1IG69, BETB_PSEE4;  
Q4K4K8, BETB_PSEF5;  C3K3D2, BETB_PSEFS;  A4XPI6, BETB_PSEMY;  
A5WA96, BETB_PSEP1;  Q3K5H4, BETB_PSEPF;  B0KN18, BETB_PSEPG;  
Q88CW7, BETB_PSEPK;  B1J2K9, BETB_PSEPW;  Q88AE9, BETB_PSESM;  
Q4ZM62, BETB_PSEU2;  A4VKC2, BETB_PSEU5;  B3PTE1, BETB_RHIE6;  
Q2KB42, BETB_RHIEC;  Q1MJU3, BETB_RHIL3;  Q985M6, BETB_RHILO;  
B5ZUG3, BETB_RHILW;  A3PI00, BETB_RHOS1;  Q3J4E9, BETB_RHOS4;  
A4WUY6, BETB_RHOS5;  B9KNS6, BETB_RHOSK;  A8GBX8, BETB_SERP5;  
Q0T7M9, BETB_SHIF8;  C3MIE5, BETB_SINFN;  A6U6Y9, BETB_SINMW;  
B4SHW0, BETB_STRM5;  B2FQ90, BETB_STRMK;  A7N2Q0, BETB_VIBCB;  
Q87H52, BETB_VIBPA;  B7VQ28, BETB_VIBTL;  Q8D3K3, BETB_VIBVU;  
Q7MF13, BETB_VIBVY;  Q8PPG7, BETB_XANAC;  Q3BXK7, BETB_XANC5;  
Q4UYN4, BETB_XANC8;  B0RNV0, BETB_XANCB;  Q8P5D8, BETB_XANCP;  
A7FKL5, BETB_YERP3;  Q1C931, BETB_YERPA;  B2K8U5, BETB_YERPB;  
Q8ZGV9, BETB_YERPE;  Q1CFR8, BETB_YERPN;  A4TNP1, BETB_YERPP;  
Q66D53, BETB_YERPS;  B1JSQ9, BETB_YERPY;  

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All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 1.2.1.-
All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 1.2.-.-
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